Creating Peace after World War Two, the long term effects of the bomb and Japan's rebuilding.


The surrender of Japan:


The Japanese representatives signing the surrender on Sept. 2nd 1945 on board of the USS Missouri
• The Allies issued the Potsdam declaration
• Potsdam Declaration

  • Issued on July 26th 1945
  • The answer to the Potsdam Declaration by Japan was miss-understood by the US.[1]
  • Truman decided to throw off another Atomic Bomb.
• August 1945:
  • Hiroshima and Nagasaki were devastated by the atomic bombs
  • The fleet of the Pacific was lost.
  • Millions of the Japanese were dead.
• Many of the able Japanese wanted to continue on with the fighting, because it was their code. Also because they preferred death over capture.
• The Emperor issued a Declaration of surrender.[2]======
  • He stated that the war was over
  • Many of the people were confused on whether should they respect their code of living or abide their Emperor
  • Emperor was almost taken hostage that night.
• The invasion of Japan
  • The war was declared over by Truman on August 15, 1945
  • The declaration of surrender was signed on board of the USS Missouri on September 2nd, 1945

The surrender of Japan and treaty


Japan Surrendered on August 14, 1945 after the second bomb fell on Nagasaki, Japan on Aug 9, 1945. On August 10,2008 The emperor himself voted for the surrender of Japan and its allies. The one condition was that the emperor remains the nominal head of state.

• On august 12, 1945 the united states announced it acceptance of japans surrender with the condition that the emperor would remain as a nominal ruler. Japan did not accept these terms right away. The united states grew impatient and on August 13, 1945 they resumed their air raids which caused thousands of deaths. The emperor his cabinet for a meeting to end the war and accepted the terms by explaining "I cannot endure the thought of letting my people suffer any longer"; if the war did not end "the whole nation would be reduced to ashes."

• On august 15 the emperor announced his decision to surrender over the radio. The emperor explained that "the war situation has developed not necessarily to Japan's advantage," and that "the enemy has begun to employ a new and most cruel bomb." The military did not support his decision but were loyal to their emperor and therefore accepted. The emperor announced the surrender himself as to show that the surrender was his own personal will and not the militaries.

• on September 2, 1945, the formal ceremony of surrender took place in the Tokyo harbor on the deck of the U.S.S. Missouri. The Official Instrument of Surrender was signed by the Japanese Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu on behalf of the Emperor and the government of Japan and General Yoshijiro Umezu, the Chief of the Army General Staff, on behalf of the Japanese armed forces.[3]

General of the Army Douglas MacArthur, Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers, accepted the surrender "for the United States, Republic of China, United Kingdom, and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, the Commonwealth Austria, the Dominion of Canada, the Provisional government of the French Republic, the kingdom of the Netherlands, and the Dominion of New Zealand in the interests of the other United Nations at war with Japan."[4]

(MacArthur opens the ceremonys with an inspiring statement "a better world ... a world founded upon faith and understanding -- a world dedicated to the dignity of man and the fulfillment of his most cherished wish -- for freedom, tolerance, and justice.")
(MacArthur opens the ceremonys with an inspiring statement "a better world ... a world founded upon faith and understanding -- a world dedicated to the dignity of man and the fulfillment of his most cherished wish -- for freedom, tolerance, and justice.")

Delegates of the United Nations 21 countries met in Paris on July 29, 1946, to draft treaties with Italy, Hungary, Bulgaria, Romania, and Finland.Britain, the Soviet Union, and France signed the treaties in Paris on Feb. 10, 1947. The terms of the treaty were that borders were made and limited to for security. Guarantees were given against racial discrimination and the rebirth of fascist governments. The Balkan treaties provided for free navigation of the Danube. concerning territores there was a Loss of colonies in Africa The port of Trieste now under the control of United Nations . The city of Fiume, most of the peninsula of Venezia Giulia, the commune of Zara, and the islands of Lagosta and Pelagosa were given to Yugoslavia; the Dodecanese Islands to Greece, the Tenda and Briga valleys, were given to France. the independence of Albania and Ethiopia was recognized by Italy.

warships of the 67,500-ton limitation to be distributed among the United States, Britain, the Soviet Union, and France. Parts of Macedonia and Thrace returned to Yugoslavia and Greece. restoration of part of Slovakia to Czechoslovakia, Ruthenia to the Soviet Union, Transylvania to Romania, and the territory that was taken from Yugoslavia in 1941. the Soviet Union recieved 200 million dollars, Yugoslavia was given 50 million , and Czechoslovakia recieved 5o million for reparations. Southern Dobruja was given to Bulgaria, and northern Bucovina/ Bessarabia were given to the Soviet Union. Petsamo, Salla, and Karelia were given to the Soviet Union. The Porkkala Peninsula was given to the Soviet Union for 50 years and the Aland Islands were demilitarized. in 1945 a temporary administration for Germany was set up by allied leaders. The country was divided into American, British, French, and Soviet occupation zones. The American, British, and French zones made up two thirds of Germany, and the Soviet zone made up the third in the east. Control of Berlin, in the Soviet zone, was divided between the Soviet Union and the Western powers. Representatives of the four powers met in Moscow in 1947 to discuss treaties for Germany and Austria. Because of the postwar weakness of Britain and France, the conference was a contest between the United States and the Soviet Union. in June 1948, the Soviet Union blockaded the roads and railways to Berlin in an attempt to force the United States, Britain, and France out of the city. They responded by supplying western Berlin with food, fuel, and medicine from outside by air. This airlift kept life going in western Berlin for 11 months, until the Soviet Union lifted the blockade in May 1949.In 1949 ten nations of western Europe joined with the United States and Canada in the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was established. Korea was occupied in the north by the Soviet Union and in the south by the United States. When the Republic of Korea established itself in the south, the majority of the United States forces withdrew. In 1950 Communist forces in North Korea and China invaded the new republic. in 1951, the United States created a treaty that was accepted by Japan and 48 other nations. Soviet Union refused to sign. china though signed a year later after the treaty was endorsed. The treaty went under the terms that the independence of Korea was now recognized; all claims were to be given to Taiwan, the Pescadores, the southern part of Sakhalin, and the Pacific islands that were under Japanese mandate to be surrendered.the new Japanese constitution prohibited all warfare except in defense. Negotiations between Japan and the Soviet Union continued until 1956, when a peace treaty was finally signed.
[5]
http://worldwar2database.com/html/japansurrender.htm


Long Term effects of the Atomic Bomb
]external image hiroshima_wideweb__430x323.jpgexternal image image-9.pngexternal image atomic.bomb.600m.from.Hiroshima.Dome2.jpg


''The A-bomb catastrophe has become more remote with each passing year. The victims are aging,
the younger people who know nothing of war now constitute over half of our own populations.
The citizens of Hiroshima and Nagasaki have risen above grief and hate to proclaim: 'No more Hiroshimas. No more Nagasakis.
' ''
-Mayor Takeshi Araki of Hiroshima and Mayor Hitoshi Motoshima of Nagasaki
*
The Medical Findings

  • Check ups still being done today about the atomic bomb radiation show that anyone who was affected by it there injuries are "irreversible" staying in the tissues organs and even cells which lead to many disorders such as leukemia

  • Children in the womb who were exposed to radiation had small bodies and heads some were "emotionally and intellectually retarded into adulthood "

  • Out of 109,000 who had been exposed 25,924 died from 1950 to 1974
  • Leukemia was one of the main causes and was still increasing among survivors

The Social and Psychological Findings

  • Not only did the Atomic bomb effect the health of people it also effected them "psychologically and spiritually"

  • The atomic bomb put great stress, anxiety and heavy pressure on the survivors causing many job loss and personality breakdowns

  • The 370,000 victims in Japan all have psychological traits like imbalance in personality and many breakdowns also they suffer from lingering fear

  • The living survivors live everyday in fear; afraid of the delayed effects of radiation, they fear that their children will be deformed they fear that their medical expenses and they fear the economic instability

  • The Radiation Effect Research Foundation (RERF) have found in increase in cancer , leukemia and solid cancer risks ( breast and lung)

Japan Now

• Economically Japan is considered to be a superpower and has the second largest economy in the world[6] at around 4,567.441 billion U.S. dollars[7] in terms of nominal GDP. Some of the largest enterprises in Japan include Toyota Motor, NTT DoCoMo, Canon, Honda, Takeda Pharmaceutical, Sony, Nippon Steel, Tepco and Mitsubishi Estate.
• Japan is a constitutional monarchy and has an emperor whose powers are limited by the constitution. Japan also has a Prime Minister who is the head of the government.
• Japan has close economic and military relations with its key ally U.S.[8]
• After World War II, Article 9 of the Japanese Constitution renounced Japan’s right to declare war or use military force to settle international disputes.
  1. ^ http://worldwar2database.com/html/japansurrender.htm
  2. ^ **
    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrument_of_Surrender_of_Japan
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  3. ^
  4. ^ **======


    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Instrument_of_Surrender_of_Japan

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  5. ^ http://student.britannica.com/comptons/article-210495/World-War-II
  6. ^ http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2006/02/data/weorept.aspx?sy=2005&ey=2005&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=512%2C446%2C914%2C666%2C612%2C668%2C614%2C672%2C311%2C946%2C213%2C137%2C911%2C962%2C193%2C674%2C122%2C676%2C912%2C548%2C313%2C556%2C419%2C678%2C513%2C181%2C316%2C682%2C913%2C684%2C124%2C273%2C339%2C921%2C638%2C948%2C514%2C686%2C218%2C688%2C963%2C518%2C616%2C728%2C223%2C558%2C516%2C138%2C918%2C353%2C748%2C196%2C618%2C278%2C522%2C692%2C622%2C694%2C156%2C142%2C624%2C449%2C626%2C564%2C628%2C283%2C228%2C853%2C924%2C288%2C233%2C293%2C632%2C566%2C636%2C964%2C634%2C182%2C238%2C453%2C662%2C968%2C960%2C922%2C423%2C714%2C935%2C862%2C128%2C716%2C611%2C456%2C321%2C722%2C243%2C965%2C248%2C718%2C469%2C724%2C253%2C576%2C642%2C936%2C643%2C961%2C939%2C813%2C644%2C199%2C819%2C184%2C172%2C524%2C132%2C361%2C646%2C362%2C648%2C364%2C915%2C732%2C134%2C366%2C652%2C734%2C174%2C144%2C328%2C146%2C258%2C463%2C656%2C528%2C654%2C923%2C336%2C738%2C263%2C578%2C268%2C537%2C532%2C742%2C944%2C866%2C176%2C369%2C534%2C744%2C536%2C186%2C429%2C925%2C178%2C746%2C436%2C926%2C136%2C466%2C343%2C112%2C158%2C111%2C439%2C298%2C916%2C927%2C664%2C846%2C826%2C299%2C542%2C582%2C443%2C474%2C917%2C754%2C544%2C698%2C941&s=NGDPD&grp=0&a=&pr1.x=64&pr1.y=9
  7. ^ http://www.imf.org/external/pubs/ft/weo/2006/02/data/weorept.aspx?sy=2005&ey=2005&scsm=1&ssd=1&sort=country&ds=.&br=1&c=512%2C446%2C914%2C666%2C612%2C668%2C614%2C672%2C311%2C946%2C213%2C137%2C911%2C962%2C193%2C674%2C122%2C676%2C912%2C548%2C313%2C556%2C419%2C678%2C513%2C181%2C316%2C682%2C913%2C684%2C124%2C273%2C339%2C921%2C638%2C948%2C514%2C686%2C218%2C688%2C963%2C518%2C616%2C728%2C223%2C558%2C516%2C138%2C918%2C353%2C748%2C196%2C618%2C278%2C522%2C692%2C622%2C694%2C156%2C142%2C624%2C449%2C626%2C564%2C628%2C283%2C228%2C853%2C924%2C288%2C233%2C293%2C632%2C566%2C636%2C964%2C634%2C182%2C238%2C453%2C662%2C968%2C960%2C922%2C423%2C714%2C935%2C862%2C128%2C716%2C611%2C456%2C321%2C722%2C243%2C965%2C248%2C718%2C469%2C724%2C253%2C576%2C642%2C936%2C643%2C961%2C939%2C813%2C644%2C199%2C819%2C184%2C172%2C524%2C132%2C361%2C646%2C362%2C648%2C364%2C915%2C732%2C134%2C366%2C652%2C734%2C174%2C144%2C328%2C146%2C258%2C463%2C656%2C528%2C654%2C923%2C336%2C738%2C263%2C578%2C268%2C537%2C532%2C742%2C944%2C866%2C176%2C369%2C534%2C744%2C536%2C186%2C429%2C925%2C178%2C746%2C436%2C926%2C136%2C466%2C343%2C112%2C158%2C111%2C439%2C298%2C916%2C927%2C664%2C846%2C826%2C299%2C542%2C582%2C443%2C474%2C917%2C754%2C544%2C698%2C941&s=NGDPD&grp=0&a=&pr1.x=64&pr1.y=9
  8. ^ http://www.realclearpolitics.com/articles/2007/03/japan_is_back_why_tokyos_new_a.html