Introduction
August 1945, was the year the atomic bomb became accesible to the public. This act of accesibility arose a question that feared all. What will happen when Stalin gets one? Scientists assumed that the Soviets would take at least five years for them to unlock this “deep dark secret”, when actually it only took them four. The fact that everyone had access to the atomic bomb information was a threat and put various countries in danger. A way to solve this nuclear prolifereation was forming a treaty. The various populations of different countries had concerns due to the fact that it effected their homes. These numerous amounts of concerns, effects and treaties will be listed in our nuclear proliferation since World War II presentation below.
[1]

GOVERNANCE, CONERNS AND EFFECTS OF NUCLEAR WEAPONS – David Williamson

GOVERNANCE:

Since their development, nuclear weapons have been a matter of international stress and concern. Though on a domestic level authorization of nuclear action and research is primarily the responsibility of the head of state, supranational organizations such as the IAEA (International Atomic Energy Agency, est. 1957 to protect the development of nonviolent nuclear technology and discourage the development of nuclear weapons around the globe) have been implemented to create laws, treaties and regulations to prevent nuclear disasters from happening ever again.
IAEA.png
IAEA Logo

Among these doctrines are:
· Partial Test Ban Treaty of 1963 confined all nuclear tests to underground facilities so as to prevent the radiation from ever reaching the public.
· Non-Proliferation Treaty of 1968 attempted to encourage the development of non-military nuclear technology (such as generators) while keeping the development of nuclear weapons under control.
· The SALT I and START Treaties implemented to limit the number and variation of nuclear weapons between the United States and Russia, in an attempt to prevent another arms race.http://c1.wikicdn.com/_/2008091200/i/c.gif
· The Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty is an ongoing document signed by many nations of the world preventing the testing of any and all nuclear weapons in hopes of preventing development completely.
· The Treaties of Tlatelolco (1967) and Pelindaba (1964) prevent the presence, testing and deployment of nuclear weapons in South America, The Caribbean and much of Africa.[2]

Other than these official doctrines, the United Nations takes it upon itself to place sanctions against any nations developing potentially harmful nuclear technology, that should not be doing so.

CONCERNS:

Mushroom Cloud.
Mushroom Cloud.
As our capacity to do good for humanity thanks to technology grows, so does out capacity to do tremendous harm. This has been a common trend since the earliest moments of our history; with the discovery of fire to warm us came the ability to burn each other, with the invention of hunting tools such as bows and arrows to feed ourselves came the power to threaten fellow humans into doing our bidding.
This trend has continued into the nuclear age, with the development of technologies such as nuclear reactors and other powerful non-military mechanisms used for the advancement of humankind, and the progress in research on nuclear weapons capable of untold destruction. Though these weapons have only been used twice in the history of our world, the damage done was enough for our only current concerns about them to be preventing nations from using them against each other again, and keeping such weapons out of the hand of the people who would unjustly use these technologies against their fellow man, just as has been done many times before in our history.[3][4]

EFFECTS:

With so much controversial attention surrounding matters of nuclear origin, there must surely be a definitive cause. What is it that makes us so afraid, amazed and infatuated with these constructs of science? The answer is simple. If something can hurt us, we pay close attention to it, some may even try to take it as their own to use as they wish.
Fat Man and Little Boy
Fat Man and Little Boy

The aftermath of the explosions in Japan in 1945 left everything within a 2 kilometer radius of the blast completely destroyed, thousands of people were killed instantaneously by the tremendous heat and thousands more by the radiation, so that by 1950 over 340,000 people had been killed by just two explosions. The bombs (named Fat Man and Little Boy)[5] dropped at Hiroshima and Nagasaki were a 12.5 kiloton (equivalent to 12.5 thousand metric tons of TNT explosive) and a 22 kiloton bomb respectively, each capable of incredible destruction. Whereas bombs back then were based on Uranium, bombs today are either Hydrogen or neutron based. The largest recorded bomb built to date is 100 megatons (100,000,000 metric tons of TNT explosive), leaving the bombs of World War II in the dust. If a bomb like that were to go off in a densely populated city like Cairo, it is safe to say that 100% of the population would be gone within seconds.[6]

Aftermath of the Hiroshima bombing (12.5 Kilotons).
Aftermath of the Hiroshima bombing (12.5 Kilotons).
Individual effects of a nuclear explosion include:
· Temperatures in the millions of degrees, many times hotter than the surface of the sun.
· Enough explosive force to destroy anything within miles of the blast.
· Shockwaves sent through the ground are large enough to cause an earthquake.
· Electromagnetic Pulse (EMP) caused by the blast due to the gamma rays given off cause complete failure of any electrical device able to survive the blast.
· Different kinds of radiation known as nuclear fallout do tremendous biological damage, causing people who live well out of the blast radius to suffer from radiation related illnesses such as leukemia.[7]

It is for all of the above reasons that organizations around the world work around the clock to prevent nuclear conflict.

The Non-proliferation Treaty (NPT)

Opened for signing on July 1, 1968 it was started to limit the spread of nuclear weapons. There are currently 189 countries of which are members, five of them have nuclear weapons. One of the main purposes of this treaty is to promote "the peaceful uses"[8] of nuclear energy. The treaty establishes and furthers its goals under the International Atomic Energy Agency. (IAEA)
The operations of the NPT are reviewed every five years. This treaty contains the most signatures of any other arms treaty.
The main agreement in this treaty states:
"Each nuclear-weapon State Party to the Treaty undertakes not to transfer to any recipient whatsoever nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices or control over such weapons or explosive devices directly, or indirectly; and not in any way to assist, encourage, or induce any non-nuclear-weapon State to manufacture or otherwise acquire nuclear weapons or other nuclear explosive devices, or control over such weapons or explosive devices."
[9]

The map below shows NPT participants:

800px-NPT_Participation.svg.png
800px-NPT_Participation.svg.png
656.jpg
[10]

The map below shows a list of many things. It is color coded based on the status of each country with nuclear weapons. From The "Nuclear Club", which is a list of various countries with nuclear power, to countries that have been accused to having nuclear weapons.
800px-Nuclear_weapons_states.svg.png
Current World nuclear standing
[11]

Haifakattan2.jpg-Haifa Kattan
The video below shows a list of countries with nuclear weapons, the effects of nuclear weapons, as well as inferences of what would happen if one of these weapons was detonated.


Nuclear Peace-Mark Nassar

Nuclear Peace is an international relations theory which states that under certain conditions weapons of mass destruction can create peace, steadiness and decrease the risks of a disaster from occurring. A good example of nuclear peace occurred during the cold war, when both the United States and the Soviet Union owned nuclear weapons but were unable to use them due to the equality of forces, abolishing the possibilities of nuclear triumph for either superpowers. Nuclear peace occurs when, war is extremely expensive for both sides and when they both have equal weapon power leading to unfeasibility of defense. Nuclear peace also occurs when destruction is certain and many civilians lives from both side are at stakes. Nukes also diminish a countries dependence on allies for security thus avoiding getting into wars with one another. If casualties and regions from both side are most definitely going demolished, war will lose its meaning and its symbol of glory and national strength, there simply will be no winner.
Supporters of nuclear peace believe that carefully watched nuclear proliferation can create a balance of power system which will induce steadiness. However a counter argument states that nuclear peace not only increases the chances of a nuclear war (because some countries are emotionally unstable) but also increases the chance of nuclear weapons ending up under the hands of terrorists.

The nuclear peace debate is happening between Kenneth Waltz the creator of this theory and Scott Sagan, his leading opponent.
Kenneth Waltz believes that “more is better”, thus the new nuclear countries will use their weapons as threats conserving peace.
Scott Sagan believes that “more will be worse”, therefore the new nuclear countries which might lack organization and control over the new sophisticated weapon, will increase the risk of deadly nuclear accidents or nuclear weapons being stolen by terrorists.

Scott Sagan
Scott Sagan
Kenneth Waltz
Kenneth Waltz

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_peace
  1. ^ http://wuphys.wustl.edu/~katz/prolif.html
  2. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nuclear_weapons#Governance.2C_control.2C_and_law
  3. ^ http://alsos.wlu.edu/default.aspx
  4. ^ http://www.magma.ca/~jalrober/Chapter12a.htm
  5. ^ http://www.atomicmuseum.com/Tour/dd2.cfm
  6. ^ http://wiki.answers.com/Q/How_much_more_efficient_is_a_modern_day_nuclear_bomb_to_a_WW2_nuclear_bomb
  7. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Effects_of_nuclear_explosions#Electromagnetic_pulse
  8. ^ http://www.un.org/Depts/dda/WMD/treaty/
  9. ^ http://www.un.org/events/npt2005/npttreaty.html
  10. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:NPT_Participation.svg
  11. ^ http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_states_with_nuclear_weapons